Lipoic acid metabolism and mitochondrial redox regulation

December 27, 2017 Science Blog By

Lipoic acid is an essential cofactor for mitochondrial metabolism and is synthesized de novo using intermediates from mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis type II, S-adenosylmethionine and iron-sulfur clusters. This cofactor is required for catalysis by multiple mitochondrial 2-ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes, including pyruvate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, and branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase. Lipoic acid also plays a critical role in stabilizing and regulating these multi-enzyme complexes.  Many of these dehydrogenases are regulated by reactive oxygen species, mediated through the disulfide bond of the prosthetic lipoyl moiety.  Collectively, its functions explain why lipoic acid is required for cell growth, mitochondrial activity and coordination of fuel metabolism. Lipoic acid is an essential cofactor for mitochondrial metabolism and is synthesized de novo using intermediates from mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis type II, S-adenosylmethionine and iron-sulfur clusters. This cofactor is required for catalysis by multiple mitochondrial 2-ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes, including pyruvate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, and branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase. Lipoic acid also plays a critical role in stabilizing and regulating these multi-enzyme complexes.  Many of these dehydrogenases are regulated by reactive oxygen species, mediated through the disulfide bond of the prosthetic lipoyl moiety.  Collectively, its functions explain why lipoic acid is required for cell growth, mitochondrial activity and coordination of fuel metabolism.

References

  1. J Biol Chem. 2017 Nov 30. pii: jbc.TM117.000259. doi: 10.1074/jbc.TM117.000259.
  2. Solmonson AD, DeBerardinis RJ.

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