Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) and PON3 (PON3) are anti-atherosclerotic enzymes, synthesized primarily in liver and bound to HDL in circulation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of therapeutic doses of lipoic acid on PON1 and PON3 protein levels, mRNA expression and arylesterase activity in liver. We treated HepG2 cells with 10, 40 and 200 μM lipoic acid for 72 h. Cell viability was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay. PON1 and PON3 protein levels were measured by Western blotting, their mRNA expression was measured by quantitative PCR and arylesterase activity was measured spectrophotometrically. 200 µM lipoic acid caused a significant increase on PON1 and PON3 protein levels and arylesterase activity as compared with control, 10 µM and 40 µM lipoic acid-treated cells. 200 µM lipoic acid also caused a significant decrease on PON1 mRNA expression whereas on a significant increase PON3 mRNA expression as compared with control, 10 µM and 40 µM lipoic acid-treated cells. Our study showed that although lipoic acid up-regulates PON3 but down-regulates PON1 mRNA expression, it increases both PON1 and PON3 protein levels and arylesterase activity in HepG2 cells. We can report that lipoic acid may be useful for preventing atherosclerosis at therapeutic doses.